2010 Annual Science Report

Pennsylvania State University Reporting  |  SEP 2009 – AUG 2010

Executive Summary

The Penn State Astrobiology Research Center (PSARC) is pursuing a comprehensive and interdisciplinary investigation of biosignatures at all scales, from individual cells to the composition of planetary atmospheres. Our projects are aimed at developing novel approaches to detecting and characterizing life, investigating biosignatures in mission-relevant microbial ecosystems and ancient rocks, and evaluating the potential for biosignatures in extraterrestrial settings. This past year saw exciting progress on many of our research directions, as well as the creation of new collaborations. For example, we established a formal collaborative program between PSARC and the Centro de Astrobiologia in Spain. The goal of the research collaboration is to increase our understanding of the origins, evolution, and distribution of life on Earth and other planets of the Solar system. Our education and public outreach efforts included the continuation of undergraduate and graduate programs for students in Astrobiology, education workshops for ... Continue reading.

Field Sites
36 Institutions
4 Project Reports
92 Publications
12 Field Sites

Project Reports

  • Biosignatures in Relevant Microbial Ecosystems

    In this project, PSARC team members explore the isotope ratios, gene sequences, minerals, organic molecules, and other signatures of life in modern environments that have important similarities with early earth conditions, or with life that may be present elsewhere in the solar system and beyond. Many of these environments are “extreme” by human standards and/or have conditions that are at the limit for microbial life on Earth.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 4.1 4.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 7.1 7.2
  • Developing New Biosignatures

    The development and experimental testing of potential indicators of life is essential for providing a critical scientific basis for the exploration of life in the cosmos. In microbial cultures, potential new biosignatures can be found among isotopic ratios, elemental compositions, and chemical changes to the growth media. Additionally, life can be detected and investigated in natural systems by directing cutting-edge instrumentation towards the investigation of microbial cells, microbial fossils, and microbial geochemical products. Our efforts are focused on creating innovative approaches for the analyses of cells and other organic material, finding ways in which metal abundances and isotope systems reflect life, and developing creative approaches for using environmental DNA to study present and past life.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.4 4.1 5.2 5.3 7.1 7.2
  • Biosignatures in Ancient Rocks

    This team of geologists, geochemists, paleontologists and biologists seeks signs of early life in ancient rocks from Earth. Working mostly on that part of Earth history before the advent of skeletons and other preservable hard parts in organisms, our group focuses on geochemical traces of life and their activities. We also investigate how life has influenced, and has been influenced by changes in the surface environment, including the establishment of an oxygen-rich environment and the initiation of extreme climate states including global glaciations. For this we use a combination of observations from modern analogous environments, studies of ancient rocks, and numerical modeling.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 7.1 7.2
  • Biosignatures in Extraterrestrial Settings

    The team will investigate the abundance of sulfur gases and elucidate how these gases can be expected to evolve with time on young terrestrial planets. They will continue studies of planet formation in the presence of migration and model radial transport of volatiles in young planetary systems, and will be involved with searches for M star planetary companions and planets around K-giant stars.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 4.1 4.3 6.2 7.1