Source: Pale Red Dot
The discovery of Proxima b is the biggest exoplanet discovery since the discovery of exoplanets. The planet is not much bigger than Earth and resides in the “habitable zone” of the Sun’s nearest stellar neighbor. This planet may represent humanity’s best chance to search for life among the stars. But is Proxima b habitable? Is it inhabited? These questions are impossible to answer at this time because we know so little about the planet. However, we can extrapolate from the worlds of our Solar System, as well as employ theoretical models of galactic, stellar, and planetary evolution, to ...
Source: [Pale Red Dot]September 08, 2016 / Written by: Rory Barnes
New research at Meteor Crater shows extreme temperatures and pressures during the impact that created the crater 49,000 years ago. Image credit: Aaron Cavosie
In molten sandstone extracted by prospectors a century ago, an international team of scientists has discovered microscopic crystals telling of unimaginable pressures and temperatures when an asteroid formed Meteor Crater in northern Arizona some 49,000 years ago.
The crystals, called zircons, have endured temperatures of 2,000 degrees Celsius or more, hot enough to melt any rock on Earth. In our planet’s crust, such temperatures occur only briefly inside impact zones, says Aaron Cavosie, a visiting professor in the NASA Astrobiology Institute’s Wisconsin Astrobiology Research Consortium team at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Zircons are tiny, phenomenally stable ...
Source: [University of Wisconsin-Madison]September 02, 2016 / Written by: David Tenenbaum
Earliest animals evolved in the mid to late Proterozoic Eon and lie deep in the fossil record. Depicted in the photo is an example of the Pteridinium genus. Credit: Douglas Erwin / National Museum of Natural History
Evolution may have been waiting for a decent breath of oxygen, said researcher Chris Reinhard. And that was hard to come by. His research team is tracking down O2 concentrations in oceans, where earliest animals evolved.
By doing so, they have jumped into the middle of a heated scientific debate on what rising oxygen did, if anything, to charge up evolutionary eras. Reinhard, a geochemist from the Georgia Institute of Technology, is shaking up conventional thinking with the help of computer modeling.
That thinking goes like this: “Atmospheric oxygen had a value of ‘x’ back then, and so we just ...
Source: [Georgia Tech]August 31, 2016 / Written by: Ben Brumfield
Artist's impression of the planet orbiting Proxima Centauri. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser
The discovery of the new Earth-sized planet candidate in the habitable zone of the star Proxima Centauri, a little more than four light-years away, was announced by ESO on August 24, 2016. The press release followed weeks of speculation and was itself followed by a great deal of excitement. The research paper on the finding has now been published in Nature.
To date, Proxima b is the closest exoplanet to us within a Goldilocks zone, putting it in a prime location for future observations, though whether the planet is actually habitable or possesses any other Earth-like qualities is still uncertain ...August 26, 2016 / Written by: Miki Huynh
The NASA Astrobiology Institute team at Jet Propulsion Laboratory have launched their new website! The Icy Worlds site (https://icyworlds.jpl.nasa.gov/) presents news, multimedia, videos detailing their research investigations, and more. Discover what’s happening in astrobiology at the water-rock interface.August 26, 2016 / Written by: Miki Huynh
The long awaited second edition of the Astrobiology Primer has been published in the journal Astrobiology, and is available to download!
This version is an update of the Primer originally published in 2006 by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers who wanted to provide a comprehensive introduction to the field. The 2016 version contains revised content that addresses the definition of life in scientific research, the origins of planets and planetary systems, the evolution and interactions of life on Earth, habitability on worlds beyond Earth, the search for life, and the overall implications of the astrobiology research. The Primer is intended ...
Source: [Astrobiology]August 23, 2016 / Written by: Miki Huynh
Congratulations to the recipients of the March 2016 NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP) Fellowships in astrobiology!
Advisor: James Lyons, (Arizona State University, Exobiology)
Topic: “Explaining isotope fractionation of sulphur in the Archean atmosphere”
Advisor: J. Michael Brown/Steve Vance (University of Washington, NAI NASA JPL Icy Worlds team)
Topic: “Comprehensive thermodynamics of aqueous solutions and ice for understanding the habitability of extraterrestrial oceans”
Edward Wade Schwieterman
Advisor: Timothy Lyons (NAI University of California, Riverside team)
Topic: “Visualizing alternative Earths through time and space”
Advisor: Jan Amend (NAI University of Southern California team)
Topic: “Stable Isotope ...August 22, 2016 / Written by: NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI)
A team of researchers studying samples from streams in the High Arctic has uncovered the lowest values measured thus far for stable carbon isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter (δ13C-DOC) in surface waters. When studying dissolved organic matter in environmental samples, scientists look at its stable carbon isotopic composition in order to learn about where the organic matter came from, and the extent to which it was processed by living organisms.
The new study outlines how biological activity has a significant impact on water chemistry in the streams, and indicates that environments with low amounts of dissolved organic carbon ...August 19, 2016 / Written by: Aaron Gronstal
Nathaniel Comfort, Walter Gilbert, W. Ford Doolittle, Ray Gesteland, and George E. Fox discuss the origins of the RNA World hypothesis at the Kluge Center. The webcast was recorded March 17, 2016. Source: Library of Congress
Back in March 2016, science historian and current Blumberg Chair in Astrobiology, Dr. Nathaniel Comfort, led a program at the Kluge Center entitled “The Origins of the RNA World,” bringing into the conversation four scientists involved in the pivotal shift in origins of life research: Dr. Walter Gilbert, Dr. W. Ford Doolittle, Dr. Ray Gesteland, and Dr. George E. Fox. The webcast is available for streaming.
Comfort later spoke with Dan Turello at the Library of Congress, touching on the history of the RNA World hypothesis, its influence on current research on the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), and how ...
Source: [Library of Congress]August 16, 2016 / Written by: Miki Huynh
SETI’s partially-built Allen Telescope Array in Northern California, the focus of the organization’s effort to collect signals from distant planets, and especially signals that just might have been created by intelligent beings. (SETI)
For decades, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and its SETI Institute home base have been synonymous with the search for intelligent, technologically advanced life beyond Earth. The pathway to some day finding that potentially sophisticated life has been radio astronomy and the parsing of any seemingly unnatural signals arriving from faraway star system — signals that just might be the product of intelligent extraterrestrial life.
It has been a lonely five decade search by now, with some tantalizing anomalies to decipher but no “eurekas.” After Congress defunded SETI in the early 1990s — a Nevada senator led the charge against spending ...
Source: [Many Worlds]August 12, 2016 / Written by: Marc Kaufman
Newly Discovered Fossils Strengthen Proposition that World’s First Mass Extinction Engineered by Early Animals
Fossils from Zaris site in Namibia: left, the discs are fossil remains of the holdfast structures that were holdfast structures for an Ediacaran species called aspidella; middle, bumps on the rock surface are the remains of burrows, called conichnus burrows, that were originally inhabited by anemone-like animals that may have fed on Ediacaran larvae; right, odd annulated and ribbon-like fossils that represent mysterious early animals (likely ecosystem engineers) called shaanxilithes. Image credit: Simon Darroch/Vanderbilt
Newly discovered fossil evidence from Namibia strengthens the proposition that the world’s first mass extinction was caused by “ecosystem engineers” – newly evolved biological organisms that altered the environment so radically it drove older species to extinction.
The event, known as the end-Ediacaran extinction, took place 540 million years ago. The earliest life on Earth consisted of microbes – various types of single-celled organisms. These held sway for more than 3 billion years, when the first multicellular organisms evolved. The most successful of these were the Ediacarans, which spread around the globe about 600 million years ago. They were a largely ...
Source: [Vanderbilt University]August 11, 2016 / Written by: David Salisbury
Basidiomycete yeast was discovered in the cortex of the wolf lichen, as well as among several other species. Image credit: University of Montana
Recent research from the University of Montana has challenged the longstanding textbook definition of lichen.
Before the study was published in Science, lichen was thought to be a symbiosis of a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing bacteria or algae. Lead author Toby Spribille analyzed different species across six continents and discovered the existence of a third essential constituent: basidiomycete yeast. The yeast cells were embedded in the lichen cortex and may provide an explanation for the variety of characteristics seen among the species.
“Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens” has since received wide media coverage ...August 08, 2016 / Written by: Miki Huynh
To test techniques for searching for life on Mars, samples have been collected from the Atacama desert in Chile as part of the European Research Consortium's Habitability of Martian Environments (HOMES) grant.
A theoretical instrument that would search for individual microbes on the surface of Mars.August 05, 2016 / Written by: Elizabeth Howell
Graduate student Hannah Miller pumping water out of a deep well drilled into peridotite, measuring the pH of the water.
Graduate student Hannah Miller (green shift) preparing to collect water samples pulled from a 300-meter deep well in peridotite by Nicolas Bompard (shown with headscarf).
Source: [astrobio.net]August 03, 2016 / Written by: Jeremy Hsu
The John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress is now accepting applications for the 5th Baruch S. Blumberg NASA/Library of Congress Chair in Astrobiology. The application deadline is December 1, 2016.
The Astrobiology Chair is a distinguished senior research position in residence at the Library of Congress for a period of up to twelve months. Using research facilities and services at the Library of Congress, the scholar engages in research at the intersection of the science of astrobiology and its humanistic and social implications. The appointment ensures the subject of astrobiology’s role in culture and society ...
Source: [Library of Congress]August 01, 2016 / Written by: Library of Congress
- June 29 - Registration Deadline for Conference for Early Career Astrobiologists: The Early History of Planetary Systems and Habitable Planets
- June 29 - Abstract Submission Deadline for Conference for Early Career Astrobiologists: The Early History of Planetary Systems and Habitable Planets
- June 30 - Registration Deadline for AbGradE: “Human Exploration of the Solar System”
- June 30 - Abstract Submission Deadline for The Cosmic Wheel and the Legacy of the AKARI archive: from galaxies and stars to planets and life
- July 6 - Indication of Interest Deadline for Habitable Worlds 2017: A System Science Workshop
- July 7 - Registration Deadline (US Citizens) for NASA Exploration Science Forum (ESF)
- July 10 - Abstract Submission Deadline for Eight Moscow Solar System Symposium
- July 13 - Abstract Submission Deadline for 51st ESLAB Symposium: Extreme Habitable Worlds
- July 13 - Seminar: "Ask an Astrobiologist Featuring Dr. Alexis Templeton"
- July 15 - Early Registration Deadline for Fifth Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Obervatories
- July 18 - Abstract Submission Deadline for Fourth International Conference on Early Mars
- July 28 - Abstract Submission Deadline (Oral) for Astrobiology 2017
- July 31 - Abstract Submission Deadline for 3rd Beijing International Forum on Lunar and Deep-space Exploration (LDSE 2017)
- July 31 - Registration and Abstract Deadline for Astrobiology Society of Britain Conference (ASB7)
- August 1 - Abstract Submission Deadline for 8th Planetary Crater Consortium Meeting
- August 2 - Abstract Submission Deadline for AGU Fall Meeting
- August 3 - Oral Presentation Abstract Submission Deadline for Fifth Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Obervatories
- August 3 - Abstract Submission Deadline for Habitable Worlds 2017: A System Science Workshop
- NAI 2014 Annual Science Report